reisverslag sumatra

 

Sumatra


 

 

 

 

 

 

Algemene informatie


Het eiland Sumatra, dat hoofdzakelijk wordt gevormd door een lange bergketen, bezit meer dan 90 vulkanen, waarvan er nog 15 werkzaam zijn.

Sumatra, na Borneo het grootste Indonesische eiland en het vijfde van de wereld, strekt zich van het noordwesten tot het zuidoosten uit tussen de Indische Oceaan en de Javazee.

De bergrug wordt gevormd door het Barisan - gebergte dat als sokkel dient voor 93 vulkanen, waarvan er nog 15 werkzaam zijn en er zeven de 3000 m overschrijden.

Van het ene tot het andere einde van de keten loops een lange inzinking, die vaak onderbroken wordt door vulkanische kegels en door de tufsteenplateaus die in de omgeving van het Toba - meer liggen.

De bergtoppen lopen af naar het tertiaire heuvelland en de alluviale vlakten die zich in het oosten, tegenover de Straat Malakka, uitstrekken.

Dit drassige gebied, dat vaak overstroomd wordt, is bedekt met mangroves. In het westen dalen de hellingen steil af in de richting van de zee die omzoomd wordt door stranden en koraalriffen. Sumatra biedt een oud en jong vulkanisme dat machtige en woeste reliŰfs heeft gevormd, zoals het Toba - meer, het grootste kratermeer van de wereld.

In het midden van het meer, verheft zich op een hoogte van 1600 m het eiland Samosir.

Tot op een hoogte van 1500 meter wordt het gebied bedekt door een dicht woud dat onderbroken wordt door savannen.

Voor de westkust strekt zich van noord naar zuid een reeks eilanden uit (Banyak-, Batu- en Mentawai - eilanden).

CIJFERS
Oppervlakte: 473.606 km2 / Lengte: 1750 km / Breedte: tussen 80 en 400 km
Bevolking: 36,45 miljoen inwoners (tien belangrijke inheemse volken, waaronder de Bataks,
de Minangkabauers, de Nias, de Mentawaiers. Chinezen. Maleiers)
Bevolkingsdichtheid: 77 inw./km2
Hoogste punt: Kerinci, 3805 m / Andere bergtoppen: Leuser (3466 m), Dempo (3159 m), Lembu (3014 m), Bandahara (3012 m), Masurai (2933 m)

KLIMAAT
Equatoriaal. Gemiddelde temperaturen: 25░ C in januari, 27 ░ C in augustus.

Overvloedige regenval (2 tot 4 m) met een maximum in oktober en november.

BEZIENSWAARDIGHEDEN
Toba - meer, Samosir - eiland, Bukittingi, Padang, Marapivulkaan, Medan, provincie Atjeh, nationaal park Kerinci, de eilanden Nias en Siberut.

Een multi-etnisch eiland
Sumatra, gelegen op het kruispunt van de grote scheepvaartroutes, is het middelpunt van een buitengewoon grote etnologische verscheidenheid.
Het eiland Sumatra, dat sinds het Mesolithicum bewoond wordt, bestaat in de eerste eeuwen van de christelijke jaartelling uit Indo-Maleise koninkrijken, die een hindoe´stische en boeddhistische inslag hebben.

In de 7e eeuw ontstaat het koninkrijk Srivijaya, een machtige zeekoninkrijk. In de 12e eeuw propageren koopmannen uit India de islam en ontstaan er in Sumatra een groot aantal sultanaten.

De Portugezen, die in de 16e eeuw in Malakka voet aan wal zetten, worden een eeuw later door de Hollanders verdreven. Sumatra wordt echter pas in de 19e eeuw volledig door de Nederlanders onderworpen.

De Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie monopoliseert de handel in peper, waardoor het in de 20e eeuw het rijkste eiland van Nederlands -IndiŰ wordt.

Sumatra, dat van 1942 tot 1945 door de Japanners wordt bezet, wordt in 1959 bij de Indonesische republiek ingelijfd. Doordat op Sumatra vele volksverhuizingen hebben plaats gevonden, biedt het gebied een buitengewoon grote etnologische verscheidenheid.

In het noorden volharden de Bataks in hun afwijzing van de islam, terwijl in het zuiden de Minangkabauers zich hebben georganiseerd in een matrilineaire gemeenschap, waar de vrouw de baas is over het familiebezit, en die vreemd genoeg erg islamitisch is.

Sumatra heeft aan zijn koloniale verleden een plantage-economie overgehouden, die gedeeltelijk verdrongen is door de exploitatie van koolwaterstoffen en delfstoffen.

WETENSWAARDIGHEDEN
Hoofdstad: Medan
Provincies: Atjeh, Noord-Sumatra, Riau, Zuid-Sumatra, West-Sumatra, Jambi, Bengkulu, Lampung
Talen: Bahasa Indonesia, Engels en ongeveer 15 andere spreektalen
Godsdiensten: islam (matrilineair), Christendom, animisme
Steden: Palembang, Padang, Banda Atjeh, Bandar Lampung, Pekanbaru
Munteenheid: Indonesische roepie
Massieven: Barisangebergte, Pusat Gayo, Serbeulangit, Tigapuluh
Belangrijkste meer: Tobameer, 1.140 km2, in een krater van 3000 km2. Hoogte: 1000 m

BRONNEN VAN INKOMSTEN
Voedingsgewassen: rijst, ma´s, thee. Handelsgewassen: specerijen, koffie. Hevea, tabak, oliepalm, sisal.

Aardolie, aardgas, steenkool, tin, bauxiet, koper, goud.

Industrie: aluminium, luchtbanden, mest, ceramiek. Toerisme, ambachtelijke activiteit.

 

 

 


Indonesia, facts and figures:

 

The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; Japan occupied the islands from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence after Japan's surrender, but it required four years of intermittent negotiations, recurring hostilities, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to transfer sovereignty in 1949. Indonesia's first free parliamentary election after decades of repressive rule took place in 1999. Indonesia is now the world's third-largest democracy, the world's largest archipelagic state, and home to the world's largest Muslim population. Current issues include: alleviating poverty, improving education, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing economic and financial reforms, stemming corruption, holding the military and police accountable for past human rights violations, addressing climate change, and controlling avian influenza. In 2005, Indonesia reached a historic peace agreement with armed separatists in Aceh, which led to democratic elections in December 2006. Indonesia continues to face a low intensity separatist movement in Papua.


Geography

Location:
Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates:
5 00 S, 120 00 E

Map references:
Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 1,904,569 sq km
country comparison to the world: 23
land: 1,811,569 sq km
water: 93,000 sq km

Area - comparative:
slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 2,830 km
border countries: Timor-Leste 228 km, Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km

Coastline:
54,716 km

Maritime claims:
measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate:
tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Terrain:
mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Puncak Jaya 5,030 m

Natural resources:
petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver

Land use:
arable land: 11.03%
permanent crops: 7.04%
other: 81.93% (2005)

Irrigated land:
45,000 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:
2,838 cu km (1999)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 82.78 cu km/yr (8%/1%/91%)
per capita: 372 cu m/yr (2000)

Natural hazards:
occasional floods; severe droughts; tsunamis; earthquakes; volcanoes; forest fires

Environment - current issues:
deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note:
archipelago of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean




People

Population:
240,271,522 (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5

Age structure:
0-14 years: 28.1% (male 34,337,341/female 33,162,207)
15-64 years: 66% (male 79,549,569/female 78,918,321)
65 years and over: 6% (male 6,335,208/female 7,968,876) (2009 est.)

Median age:
total: 27.6 years
male: 27.1 years
female: 28.1 years (2009 est.)

Population growth rate:
1.136% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117

Birth rate:
18.84 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108

Death rate:
6.25 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 154

Net migration rate:
-1.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129

Urbanization:
urban population: 52% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 3.3% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 29.97 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 74
male: 34.93 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 24.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.76 years
country comparison to the world: 137
male: 68.26 years
female: 73.38 years (2009 est.)

Total fertility rate:
2.31 children born/woman (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.2% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
270,000 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
8,700 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36

Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: chikungunya, dengue fever, and malaria
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)

Nationality:
noun: Indonesian(s)
adjective: Indonesian

Ethnic groups:
Javanese 40.6%, Sundanese 15%, Madurese 3.3%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Betawi 2.4%, Bugis 2.4%, Banten 2%, Banjar 1.7%, other or unspecified 29.9% (2000 census)

Religions:
Muslim 86.1%, Protestant 5.7%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 1.8%, other or unspecified 3.4% (2000 census)

Languages:
Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (the most widely spoken of which is Javanese)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 90.4%
male: 94%
female: 86.8% (2004 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 11 years
male: 12 years
female: 11 years (2005)

Education expenditures:
3.6% of GDP (2006)
country comparison to the world: 127




Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
conventional short form: Indonesia
local long form: Republik Indonesia
local short form: Indonesia
former: Netherlands East Indies, Dutch East Indies

Government type:
republic

Capital:
name: Jakarta
geographic coordinates: 6 10 S, 106 49 E
time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
note: Indonesia is divided into three time zones

Administrative divisions:
30 provinces (provinsi-provinsi, singular - provinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Kepulauan Bangka Belitung, Kepulauan Riau, Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Papua, Papua Barat, Riau, Sulawesi Barat, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Yogyakarta*
note: following the implementation of decentralization beginning on 1 January 2001, the 465 regencies and municipalities have become the key administrative units responsible for providing most government services

Independence:
17 August 1945 (declared); 27 December 1949 (by the Netherlands)
note: in August 2005, the Netherlands announced it recognized de facto Indonesian independence on 17 August 1945

National holiday:
Independence Day, 17 August (1945)

Constitution:
August 1945; abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959; series of amendments concluded in 2002

Legal system:
based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures and election codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage:
17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004); Vice President Muhammad Yusuf KALLA (since 20 October 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004); Vice President Muhammad Yusuf KALLA (since 20 October 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president and vice president are elected for five-year terms (eligible for a second term) by direct vote of the citizenry; last held on 8 July 2009 (next to be held in July 2014)
election results: Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO elected president; percent of vote - Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO 60.8%, MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri 26.8%, Jusuf KALLA 12.4%

Legislative branch:
People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) is the upper house, consists of members of DPR and DPD, has role in inaugurating and impeaching the president and in amending the constitution, does not formulate national policy; House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (550 seats, members elected to serve five-year terms), formulates and passes legislation at the national level; House of Regional Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah or DPD), constitutionally mandated role includes providing legislative input to DPR on issues affecting regions
elections: last held 9 April 2009 (next to be held in 2014)
election results: percent of vote by party - PD 20.9%, GOLKAR 14.5%, PDI-P 14.0%, PKS 7.9%, PAN 6.0%, PPP 5.3%, PKB 4.9%, GERINDRA 4.5%, HANURA 3.8%, others 18.2%; seats by party - PD 148, GOLKAR 108, PDI-P 93, PKS 59, PAN 42, PPP 39, PKB 26, GERINDRA 30, HANURA 15
note: 29 other parties received less than 2.5% of the vote so did not obtain any seats; because of election rules, the number of seats won does not always follow the percentage of votes received by parties

Judicial branch:
Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung is the final court of appeal but does not have the power of judicial review (justices are appointed by the president from a list of candidates selected by the legislature); in March 2004 the Supreme Court assumed administrative and financial responsibility for the lower court system from the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights; Constitutional Court or Mahkamah Konstitusi (invested by the president on 16 August 2003) has the power of judicial review, jurisdiction over the results of a general election, and reviews actions to dismiss a president from office; Labor Court under supervision of Supreme Court began functioning in January 2006; the Anti-Corruption Court has jurisdiction over corruption cases brought by the independent Corruption Eradication Commission; in 2006, the Constitutional Court declared the mechanism by which the Anti-Corruption Court was established unconstitutional and gave the parliament until the end of 2009 to pass Anti-Corruption Court legislation

Political parties and leaders:
Democrat Party or PD [Hadi UTOMO]; Functional Groups Party or GOLKAR [Yusuf KALLA]; Great Indonesia Movement Party or GERINDRA [WIRANTO]; Indonesia Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri]; National Awakening Party or PKB [Muhaiman ISKANDAR]; National Mandate Party or PAN [Sutrisno BACHIR]; People's Conscience Party or HANURA [SUHARDI]; Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Tifatul SEMBIRING]; United Development Party or PPP [Suryadharma ALI]

Political pressure groups and leaders:
Indonesian Women's Coalition (Koalisi Perempuan - human rights group); Islamic Defenders Front or FPI; National Alliance for Freedom of Religion and Faith; Oil Palm Watch (environmental)

International organization participation:
ADB, APEC, APT, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, CP, EAS, FAO, G-15, G-20, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador SUDJADNAN Parnohadiningrat
chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200
FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Cameron R. HUME
embassy: Jalan 1 Medan Merdeka Selatan 4-5, Jakarta 10110
mailing address: Unit 8129, Box 1, FPO AP 96520
telephone: [62] (21) 3435-9000
FAX: [62] (21) 3435-9922
consulate(s) general: Surabaya

Flag description:
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red




Economy

Economy - overview:
Indonesia, a vast polyglot nation, has made significant economic advances under the administration of President YUDHOYONO, but faces challenges stemming from the global financial crisis and world economic downturn. Indonesia's debt-to-GDP ratio in recent years has declined steadily because of increasingly robust GDP growth and sound fiscal stewardship. The government has introduced significant reforms in the financial sector, including in the areas of tax and customs, the use of Treasury bills, and capital market supervision. Indonesia's investment law, passed in March 2007, seeks to address some of the concerns of foreign and domestic investors. Indonesia still struggles with poverty and unemployment, inadequate infrastructure, corruption, a complex regulatory environment, and unequal resource distribution among regions. The non-bank financial sector, including pension funds and insurance, remains weak, and despite efforts to broaden and deepen capital markets, they remain underdeveloped. Economic difficulties in early 2008 centered on high global food and oil prices and their impact on Indonesia's poor and on the budget. The onset of the global financial crisis dampened inflationary pressures, but increased risk aversion for emerging market assets resulted in large losses in the stock market, significant depreciation of the rupiah, and a difficult environment for bond issuance. As global demand has slowed and prices for Indonesia's commodity exports have fallen, Indonesia faces the prospect of growth significantly below the 6-plus percent recorded in 2007 and 2008.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$915.9 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
$863.1 billion (2007)
$811.1 billion (2006)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$510.8 billion (2008 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
6.1% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56
6.4% (2007 est.)
5.5% (2006 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$3,900 (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157
$3,700 (2007 est.)
$3,500 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 13.5%
industry: 45.6%
services: 40.8% (2008 est.)

Labor force:
112 million (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 42.1%
industry: 18.6%
services: 39.3% (2005 est.)

Unemployment rate:
8.4% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112
9.1% (2007 est.)

Population below poverty line:
17.8% (2006)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 28.5% (2002)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
39.4 (2005)
country comparison to the world: 66

Investment (gross fixed):
23.6% of GDP (2008)
country comparison to the world: 67

Budget:
revenues: $101.1 billion
expenditures: $101.6 billion (2008 est.)

Public debt:
30.1% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
11.1% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 161
6.3% (2007 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
10.83% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 52
8% (31 December 2007)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
6.41% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 118
7.21% (31 December 2007)

Stock of money:
$41.71 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 27
$47.78 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of quasi money:
$131.1 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 20
$127 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of domestic credit:
$166.2 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 35
$170.2 billion (31 December 2007)

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$111.5 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 45

Agriculture - products:
rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra; poultry, beef, pork, eggs

Industries:
petroleum and natural gas, textiles, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, food, tourism

Industrial production growth rate:
2.8% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108

Electricity - production:
142.4 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27

Electricity - consumption:
121.2 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2007 est.)

Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2007 est.)

Oil - production:
977,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23

Oil - consumption:
1.564 million bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17

Oil - exports:
85,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66

Oil - imports:
672,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18

Oil - proved reserves:
3.99 billion bbl (1 January 2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27

Natural gas - production:
56 billion cu m (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16

Natural gas - consumption:
23.4 billion cu m (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31

Natural gas - exports:
32.6 billion cu m (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166

Natural gas - proved reserves:
2.659 trillion cu m (1 January 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13

Current account balance:
$1 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48

Exports:
$136.8 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33

Exports - commodities:
oil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood, textiles, rubber

Exports - partners:
Japan 20.7%, US 10.2%, Singapore 9.2%, China 8.5%, South Korea 6.6%, Malaysia 4.5%, India 4.3% (2007)

Imports:
$128.8 billion f.o.b. (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31

Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
Singapore 13.2%, China 11.5%, Japan 8.8%, Malaysia 8.6%, US 6.4%, Thailand 5.8%, Saudi Arabia 4.5%, South Korea 4.3%, Australia 4% (2007)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$51.54 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 27

Debt - external:
$151.7 billion (30 September 2008)
country comparison to the world: 28

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$63.46 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$4.277 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53

Exchange rates:
Indonesian rupiah (IDR) per US dollar - 9,698.9 (2008), 9,143 (2007), 9,159.3 (2006), 9,704.7 (2005), 8,938.9 (2004)




Communications

Telephones - main lines in use:
17.828 million (2007)
country comparison to the world: 18

Telephones - mobile cellular:
81.835 million (2007)
country comparison to the world: 10

Telephone system:
general assessment: domestic service fair, international service good
domestic: interisland microwave system and HF radio police net; domestic satellite communications system; coverage provided by existing network has been expanded by use of over 200,000 telephone kiosks many located in remote areas; mobile cellular subscribership growing rapidly
international: country code - 62; landing point for both the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks that provide links throughout Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations:
AM 678, FM 43, shortwave 82 (1998)

Television broadcast stations:
54 local TV stations (11 national TV networks; each with its group of local transmitters) (2006)

Internet country code:
.id

Internet hosts:
753,200 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 43

Internet users:
13 million (2007)
country comparison to the world: 25




Transportation

Airports:
669 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 10

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 163
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 17
1,524 to 2,437 m: 52
914 to 1,523 m: 54
under 914 m: 36 (2008)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 506
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 26
under 914 m: 475 (2008)

Heliports:
17 (2007)

Pipelines:
condensate 735 km; condensate/gas 73 km; gas 5,797 km; oil 5,721 km; oil/gas/water 12 km; refined products 1,370 km; water 44 km (2008)

Railways:
total: 8,529 km
country comparison to the world: 26
narrow gauge: 8,529 km 1.067-m gauge (565 km electrified) (2008)

Roadways:
total: 391,009 km
country comparison to the world: 18
paved: 216,714 km
unpaved: 174,295 km (2005)

Waterways:
21,579 km (2008)
country comparison to the world: 6

Merchant marine:
total: 971
country comparison to the world: 11
by type: bulk carrier 54, cargo 514, chemical tanker 35, container 80, liquefied gas 7, passenger 44, passenger/cargo 68, petroleum tanker 143, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 10, specialized tanker 10, vehicle carrier 4
foreign-owned: 43 (China 2, France 1, Germany 1, Japan 6, Norway 1, Philippines 1, Singapore 27, Taiwan 2, UAE 2)
registered in other countries: 114 (Bahamas 2, Cambodia 2, China 1, Hong Kong 7, Liberia 2, Mongolia 1, Panama 31, Singapore 66, unknown 2) (2008)

Ports and terminals:
Banjarmasin, Belawan, Ciwandan, Kotabaru, Krueg Geukueh, Palembang, Panjang, Sungai Pakning, Tanjung Perak, Tanjung Priok

Transportation - note:
the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial and offshore waters in the Strait of Malacca and South China Sea as high risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; numerous commercial vessels have been attacked and hijacked both at anchor and while underway; hijacked vessels are often disguised and cargo diverted to ports in East Asia; crews have been murdered or cast adrift




Military

Military branches:
Indonesian Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI): Army (TNI-Angkatan Darat (TNI-AD)), Navy (TNI-Angkatan Laut (TNI-AL); includes marines, naval air arm), Air Force (TNI-Angkatan Udara (TNI-AU)), National Air Defense Command (Kommando Pertahanan Udara Nasional (Kohanudnas)) (2009)

Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for selective compulsory and voluntary military service; 2-year conscript service obligation, with reserve obligation to age 45 (officers); Indonesian citizens only (2008)

Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 63,800,825
females age 16-49: 61,729,717 (2008 est.)

Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 52,997,922
females age 16-49: 52,503,046 (2009 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 2,197,323
female: 2,126,412 (2009 est.)

Military expenditures:
3% of GDP (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50




Transnational Issues

Disputes - international:
Indonesia has a stated foreign policy objective of establishing stable fixed land and maritime boundaries with all of its neighbors; Timor-Leste-Indonesia Boundary Committee has resolved all but a small portion of the land boundary, but discussions on maritime boundaries are stalemated over sovereignty of the uninhabited coral island of Pulau Batek/Fatu Sinai in the north and alignment with Australian claims in the south; many refugees from Timor-Leste who left in 2003 still reside in Indonesia and refuse repatriation; a 1997 treaty between Indonesia and Australia settled some parts of their maritime boundary but outstanding issues remain; ICJ's award of Sipadan and Ligitan islands to Malaysia in 2002 left the sovereignty of Unarang rock and the maritime boundary in the Ambalat oil block in the Celebes Sea in dispute; the ICJ decision has prompted Indonesia to assert claims to and to establish a presence on its smaller outer islands; Indonesia and Singapore continue to work on finalization of their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesia's Batam Island; Indonesian secessionists, squatters, and illegal migrants create repatriation problems for Papua New Guinea; piracy remains a problem in the Malacca Strait; maritime delimitation talks continue with Palau; Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef; Australia has closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier Reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing and placed restrictions on certain catches

Refugees and internally displaced persons:
IDPs: 200,000-350,000 (government offensives against rebels in Aceh; most IDPs in Aceh, Central Kalimantan, Central Sulawesi Provinces, and Maluku) (2007)

Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; producer of methamphetamine and ecstasy

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 

 

 

 

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Hans Ros
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